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Glossary For Ancient Voices


Aaron When the 430-year Exodus materialized, Aaron (from the Levite tribe) was promptly made the High Priest by Thutmosis, and his tribe was delivered the priestly role, something that was given to the tribe of Ephraim by Jacob. Either way, Aaron was made the first High Priest (Kohein Gadol) of the new religion that Thutmosis created. Aaron was a translator, spokesman, and the enforcer to the people for Thutmosis, for he controlled the Levi tribe. [The nine tribes claim that Aaron was the older brother of Moses/Thutmosis, but no physical evidence has yet been discovered proving this belief. There is evidence supporting the theory that Thutmosis/Moses was the legitimate son of either Amenhotep III or Thutmose IV.]

Abraham (Abram) The patriarch of Islam, Christianity, Hebrew, and Jewish religions. His early name was Abram. His father was Terah (or Azar in Islam), and he had two brothers, Haran and Nahor. From the evidence, it appears that Abraham was a wealthy man whose affection was likely split between two women, Sara and Hagar. With his heart divided by a fracture made from love, a lack of needed discipline concerning love and family issues, the tribe evolved into a full-blown Hatfield and McCoy feud.  

Abdu Heba Ruler of Jerusalem during the time of Akhenaten.

Aegean People from the Aegean Sea between Greece and Turkey. In the Bronze Age, the Minoans of Crete and the Mycenaean civilization. 

Ahmose I Ahmose I was the founder of the 18thDynasty. He drove the Hyksos out of mainland Egypt and the entire Delta region.

Ahmose-Nefertari She ruled with Ahmose I andwas the initial queen of the 18th Dynasty. She had the blood of Joseph and Aseneth—the carrier of the Hebrew and Egyptian bloodline. Two of her titles were “The Second Prophet of Amen” and “God’s Wife”. When Ahmose I died, she ruled with her young son Amenemhat I. Not only was she deified, but Ahmose-Nefertari also set the new standard for Egyptian freedom. Joseph’s wife Aseneth initiated freedom for women, and Nefertari phoenixes this once again.

Akhenaten (Akhenaton/Akhnaton/Amenhotep IV/Ikhnaton/Pharaoh) Amenhotep IV was his name until about year 5 of his rule; this is when his city Amarna was nearly completed. His father was Amenhotep III and his mother was Queen Tiye. He was not the crown prince, but when Thutmosis killed the Egyptian, the other candidates, Smenkhere and Tutankhamen, were too young. Tiye pushed aside Anen, and thus by the firm hand of his mother, Akhenaten became the new ruler.  However, at this point, his religious reformation of only one god, Aten, made him unwanted in all of Egypt, for he did not reform the religion—it became law. With the priesthood out of work and his “hippie” attitude of love, peace, and forgiveness, corruption spread like a wildfire. Within a few short years, most of Egypt was against him. From the evidence, Akhenaten attempted to return Egypt to the same religion of Osiris and Joseph/Aseneth, but he was unaware to the depth of the nine tribes’ hatred of this peaceful religion. He believed that when the nine tribes were rescued from the quarries, they would be thankful and this would overcome the depth of their revenge, but he was wrong. Even though they were paid and constantly forgiven for their troublemaking attitude, Thutmosis appeared and they decided to leave and sojourn to the Promised Land. Soon thereafter Akhenaten died, perhaps out of sadness since the people he saved had only hatred for him. Also, most Egyptians gave him the same treatment, which included dark magic. With the deaths of Smenkhere, Nurse Tiy (Ay’s wife), Amenia, his mother Tiye, and Amenhotep the Son of Hapu, and the banishment of Nefertiti, which he lived with every day, by the time of the firstborn death of his favorite daughter Meket and Tutankhamen’s death, he was a broken man. By the time Tutankhamen was co-regent, most of the wealth was withheld from Akhenaten, and by then he could not even attempt to save Egypt, for the priesthood desired Tutankhamen to save Egypt. Akhenaten was terribly naïve, for although he cared deeply for everyone, few were there to help. However, he was clearly a great man way ahead of his time.

Akhenaten the city (Al Amarna/El Amarna/Tel El Amarna/Amarna) Amarnawas a city where Pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti ruled. It is located approximately halfway between Cairo and Luxor. The nine tribes of Israel built this city, but once it was completed, in a few short years it was abandoned, and in approximately seven years, it was dismantled and almost forgotten. Some of the stone was sent to Hermopolis and Thebes. After the 430-year Exodus took place, part of the reason no one lived there was due to the plague. Another likely factor was Egyptians desiring to forget such dark times.

Amen-Ra (Amon-Re/Amun-Re/Amen/Amon/Amun Imn) If compared to Greek mythology, Amen-Ra would be superficially similar to the god Zeus. The God Amen and his wife Ament were spoken of in the early pyramid texts. In the ancient texts, the name Amen means “hidden”, and/or “hidden to mankind, his children and even the gods”. His title was “King of the Gods”. When the name Amen-Ra is used, this says one thing: that the God Ra is the spirit of our sun, which gives life, and the God Amen, the cosmic creative god of gods, united in spirit with Ra. 

Amenirdis Wife of the God Amen and high priestess.

Amenemhat I (Amenemhet I) Amenemhat I was the first ruler in the Twelfth Dynasty (Middle Kingdom). He ruled for 29 years and brought needed stability for Egypt. He was possibly the first king to share co-regency with his son, Senusret I. He has a pyramid at Lisht.   

Amenemhat II (Amenemhet II) Amenemhat II ruled for thirty-four years and built his pyramid at Dashur (Dahshur).

Amenemhat III (Amenemhet III) Amenemhat III ruled for 45 years. His second-in-command was Joseph/Amenemhat IV. This is why he has a record of economic growth and major agricultural works in the Faiyum (Fayoum) area of Egypt. Joseph interpreted the king’s dream and soon he became the Vizier, the highest official to serve the king and Egypt. The reason the bloodline of Egypt and Amenemhat III’s did not continue is simple—he had two daughters, Neferptah and Sithathor. His only son, Amenemhat, was killed, just as the story of Joseph and Aseneth states. He was in love with Aseneth (Sobekneferu). Some of Joseph’s brothers joined forces with the prince to kill the king and Joseph; the plan was for the prince to make Aseneth his queen once Joseph was eliminated. But when Benjamin and a few of Joseph’s other brothers arrived to defend Aseneth, Benjamin struck the prince and soon thereafter he died. At this point, the only one to carry the Egyptian bloodline was Aseneth.  

Amenemhat IV (Amenemhet IV) Amenemhat IV not only did it all, but he even had a wife who was an equal. If one looks at the totality of the evidence thus far, Joseph, while young, had a plan—or God did. As a teen, his brothers sold him into slavery. In a few years, he was the vizier of Egypt and generating massive building projects to store food and extend the fertile Faiyum area. When his prediction of seven years of plenty to be followed by seven years of famine came to pass, this made Egypt a savior nation and a very rich one, too. For decades Joseph served as the vizier, and when Amenemhat III died, he ruled for twelve years with his queen. With her Egyptian blood and his Hebrew, their children were both Hebrew and Egyptian. It was through Aseneth/Sobekneferu, Joseph’s wife, that the descendants became the Ahmose clan in the 18th Dynasty.   

Amenhotep I (Amenophis I) Ahmose I began the 18th Dynasty, and Amenhotep I followed, reigning for a quarter of a century. He was a military man who led some campaigns to Kush and instituted building in the massive Temple of Karnak in Thebes (today’s Luxor).

Amenhotep II His father was Thutmose III. Amenhotep II was the seventh ruler in the 18th Dynasty. Amenhotep II inherited an Egypt that was a very powerful nation. With Queen Tiaa, he had ten sons and a daughter. Amenhotep II was the Egyptian Hercules; with his amazing strength, stamina, and his famous bow that no other man could string, he became an Egyptian legend.   

Amenhotep III The ninth king of Egypt in the 18th Dynasty. Amenhotep’s gods were perhaps many, but the prime ones known from physical evidence are Sekhmet and Sobek, the same god Joseph’s wife Aseneth worshipped, which is an indicator that he was a supporter of the 400-year Exodus and of Aseneth. His mother Mutemwiya was part of the bloodline of Ahmose-Nefertari. Amenhotep III was possibly the father of daughters Sitamun, Iset, Henuttaneb, Nebetah, Beketaten, and sons Akhenaten, Tutankhamen, and Smenkhere. He may also have been the father of Thutmosis, but examining the timing and evidence, Thutmose IV was the likely father. After the death of Amenhotep III’s father, Thutmose IV, he was far too young to rule, therefore his mother took the reins. Many statues are of her and not labeled as Queen Tiye, but it was Tiye who he married. This king was more of a massive builder than a warrior, for he had a golden age. Yet, regardless of his throne and how it commanded the respect within the entire area, everything went into a tailspin when his eldest son, Thutmosis, had to abdicate his co-regency. He wanted to pull the reins in on the corrupt priesthood, but after Thutmosis killed the Egyptian, his other son, Amenhotep IV, became the next king. The protective priesthood became so defensive that once Amenhotep III died, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) had to leave Thebes (Luxor) and move into his unfinished city. 

Amenhotep IV . . . SeeAkhenaten

Amenhotep Son of Hapu He was born north of Cairo in the time of Thutmose III. Hapu was his father and Ipu was his mother. He was an architect, priest, scribe, teacher, healer, mystic, and organizer for the king’s building projects. There is a powerful story told by Manetho that involved Amenhotep the Son of Hapu. He said that Amenhotep the Son of Hapu advised Amenhotep III to “clear the whole country of the lepers and of other impure people”. The nine tribes came from Avaris, and this area was known to have lepers. Next, the “King” sent 80,000 to the quarries. Considering the 20,000 (the three tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin) sent from the Promised Land by Akhenaten to live in Ethiopia, this comes to almost 7,000 people in each tribe. Divide 80,000 by 9 (the nine tribes); there would be approximately 9,000 per tribe. Examining the “census” on the Exodus, all of the nine tribes are more than the three. From this evidence, it appears that Amenhotep III listened to the advice of Amenhotep the Son of Hapu and forced the nine tribes into cruel slavery in the quarries. With Amenhotep the III’s apparent acceptance and love of Tuya and Yuya (Queen Tiye’s parents), this indicates his loyalty to the blood of Joseph. The Son of Hapu was a wise man; why would he advise Amenhotep III, who was not known to be cruel, to enslave the nine tribes? Either way, it had to be something big, as the death of Mutemwiya, Yuya, Tuya, Ramose, Anen, Nurse Tiy (Ay’s wife), Amenia (Horemheb’s wife), or Amenhotep’s slow death from poisoning. Or it might have been due to the continual troublemaking of social and/or religious situations that undermined the king, or Egypt, or many of the above. Yet, this gives support to the story of Moses/Thutmosis killing an Egyptian while they were in slavery. After Amenhotep III died, with Akhenaten’s forgiveness policies, was it any wonder he took them out of the quarries to build his capital? Manetho says this all ended for Amenhotep the Son of Hapu when he began to realize the 80,000 would eventually gain the respect of others [as Egyptians when Akhenaten began to remove them from the quarries] and they might generate a revolution. This did begin at this time, for Akhenaten was called the heretic due to his religious reformation. Manetho fully relates this with the 430-year Exodus, and what appears to support it further is how the Jewish historian Josephus strongly denied this. Perhaps his reason is due to his known Jewish perspective, personal history, and heritage. Odd how Manetho says that Amenhotep the Son of Hapu typically told Akhenaten that he was doing it all wrong, and after he realized his prophecy could actually happen, he sent a letter to the King (Smenkhere?) and proceeded to kill himself. The bottom line with Amenhotep the Son of Hapu is that he was so highly regarded by everyone, for he was said to be like Imhotep, that after his death he was deified, like Imhotep.  

Amenia Amenia was the first wife of Horemheb. She was a noblewoman and “Chantress of Amon” (Amen). There is the possibility that she was a descendant of Ahmose-Nefertari. Amenia mysteriously died when the city of Amarna was almost built. 

Ament There is the Alpha and the Omega. In the formation of creation, two spirits parted—Amen to the beginning of time and Ament to the end. When the end of times was decided, Ament went back into time to embrace Amen. Time stops when they embrace, and this is the end of times, for their spirits are timeless and consist of total love. This is the ultimate love story, for they use their love (timelessness) for the advancement of life.

Amenti The dwelling of the hidden God Amen (Amon). This dwelling is unlike anything in our polarity cosmos, for it is entirely hidden, but it is far, far, superior to the typical “Heaven”, for that is regulated by time and ends when time ends. Amenti is the Heaven of Heavens, and for any living being to ascend into this realm of unknown existence, he/she would have to be equal to the Buddha, Jesus, Joseph, Isis, Maat, and Nuit. The path to Amenti is unknown, but certainly it may begin with the “Land of the Dead (Duat)”. Thereafter, the soul/spirit must traverse through the fourteen kingdoms of Osiris, one of which is known as the Great Hall of Judgment. To fully comprehend Amenti is to ascend to Amenti.  

Amorites (Amurru) Populate of Rentu, today’s West Syria/Lebanon.

Ankh (Anch) The hieroglyphic of life. It has two meanings: life as humanity knows it, with its suffering and growth; and eternal life, which is life after the end of times for the chosen few. This simply means that some do go to Heaven, but even that is regulated by time and has an end. There is a higher form of life and this is with the Ankh, for it is beyond time and space. This is the land of Amenti.

Anen In the time of Amenhotep III, Nefertiti, and Akhenaten, Anen was a powerful individual, for he was the son of Yuya and Tuya, the bloodline of Egypt and the Hebrews. He was the brother of Ay, perhaps the most powerful man with four kings and one Pharaoh, and the brother of Queen Tiye and possibly Queen Sitamun. He was the “Second Prophet of Amun (Amen), Seal bearer of the King, Sem Priest of Heliopolis, Divine Father, High Priest, Noble and Hereditary prince, One who is close to his Lord, One with a perfect reputation of the Palace, One who soothes the gods with his voice”. He was also connected with Amenhotep the Son of Hapu, Horemheb, and Ramose the Vizier.    

Ankhsenpaaten The princess of Nefertiti and Akhenaten. She was very young when she was co-regent with Nefertiti and few dared to cross her path, for Queen Tiye taught her. She was like a charging hippo. If there had to be one basic reason as to why Thutmosis made the Israelites wander for forty years, it was Ankhsenpaaten.  

Anubis (Anpu) The dog protecting tombs. The jackal god of mummification and present at all judgment scenes. He was also the spirit of the dog of the family of Isis, Osiris, Horus, Set, Nepthys, and the son of Nepthys and Osiris.

Apep (Apopis/Apopis) A serpent in Egypt was called apep, and in Greek, apopis. In general terms, apep refers to lies and evil. In many ancient texts it tells of the sun god Ra in his arc confronting Apep. Apep is illusion and the enemy of the goddess of truth, Maat. Apep is humanity’s sins, and the slaying of Apep is as if one slayed the ignorance of humanity. In ancient Egypt there was a yearly ritual called the “Banishing of Apep” done by most temples to banish Apep. This is the ritual from which Thutmosis took the basics and applied it with the Israelite “scapegoat ritual”. The religion also had numerous texts guiding how to banish Apep. One was called the Book of Overthrowing Apep.     

Ark (Arc) of the Covenant The famous Ark of the Covenant was made out of the shittah-tree (acacia) and layered in gold. The acacia tree in Egypt was the tree of life. The Ark of the Covenant was mostly a copy of the arks that were made for every Egyptian temple. With the Ark of Moses, the cherubim were fashioned after Egypt’s goddesses. The so-called “mercy seat” was on top of the Ark, and it projected the spiritual rectification and/or cleansing. During Yom Kippur, the Jewish High Priest would sprinkle the blood of a sacrificed bull onto the mercy seat as atonement for sins. The sacred“Apis” bull in Egypt was one of—if not the most important—rituals, and Thutmosis did this ritual. It was said to be the personification of Ptah and Osiris, and Ptah was the god of the city Memphis where Thutmosis was the mayor. There was a Festival of the Apis Bull that went on for seven days in Memphis. Also near Memphis, at Sakara, was the Apis Bull Serapeum, a sacred burial place for sacred bulls.     

Ark (Arc) of Amen (Amon) In every Egyptian temple there was an Ark of the god of the temple. The Egyptian Ark was kept from view for the entire year until the famous Opet festival.  The sanctuary in Karnak Temple in Luxor was dedicated to the sacred boat (Ark) of Amon-Ra (Amen-Ra). The sacred boat was regarded as most sacred, almost equal to the statue and its golden altar (Moses’ Ark of the Covenant). The sacred boats were so vital in the Egyptian religion that five sacred boats were discovered near the Great Pyramid. One, made of cedar, was in such good shape (because it was disassembled) that when it was put together, the boat could almost float . . . 5,000 years later! Within the Egyptian Ark there was the sacred statue of Amen-Ra in the area of Moses’ Ark of the Covenant’s “mercy seat”. There was no statue on the Ark of the Covenant because Moses/Thutmosis outlawed statues. [Such evidence is a key to overcome cover-ups, for to see the face of Moses or Aaron is like seeing a three-dimensional wanted poster.]     

Aseneth (Asenath/Asaneth/Asneith) Aseneth is only spoken of three times in the Bible. She was the wife of Joseph and later became the ruler of Egypt after the death of her husband. There are many ancient apocrypha texts with about twenty-nine chapters telling the story of Joseph and Aseneth. If the chapters were put into the Torah, it would soon be self-evident that Joseph and Aseneth believed and lived the way of Osiris and Isis. Christianity later brought the same message, so it is likely the nine tribes edited this out for it spoke of the true Hebrew religion.

Asher The eighth son of Jacob and Zilpah (a handmaiden).

Astarte A goddess that first appears in Egypt, typically in the northwest region. Some Egyptians and mostly Semitic peoples, such as the Hyksos, worshipped her. She was commonly called Astarte, but also known as Anat and even the goddess Pakhet, the huntress in the desert. When Hagar became famous with her godly bow and began early Islam, this goddess became widely known in the entire region. In Hebrew and Phoenician, her name is Astarte. In Ugarit texts, her name was Athtart. In Syria, the goddess is known as Atargatis. In Greek mythology, she is the goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite. In Babylonia, she is Ishtar. These cultures cast her in a positive note. However, in Jewish mythology, she is called Ashtoreth, the female demon of lust.

Ata (Avishai/Ita-Ourt/Weret) At el-Lisht there are two pyramids, one of Amenemhat I and the other of his son, Senusret I. Senusret’s is surrounded by ten smaller pyramids. One of these smaller pyramids was built for Itakaiet (Ata), the one who may be Ivijah/Hagar/Kenturah, while another was built for Khaba II.

Aten (Aton) The Aten is the term indicating the sun disc. The “Aten” was the god of Akhenaten and it was of the sun. Many claim it was the first monotheistic religion, but in the Egyptian religion, Amen-Ra was all the gods. Aten was not a new god of Egypt in the 18th Dynasty, for the Aten was first on a monument at Giza. But the first time it was commonly utilized occurred in the Middle Kingdom, when solar worship began to arrive with this name. The story of Sinuhe explains how Amenemhat I was soaring in the sky with Aten, his creator. It is no coincidence that the 12th Dynasty and the end of the 18thhad similarities, as with Akhenaten being called “Pharaoh”, the Aten being worshipped, and the religions synonymous, as with Akhenaten’s and Joseph’s.      

Atum The Egyptian Creator God. Their creation god is similar to the Buddhist, Hindu, and Daoist (Taoist) creation myth with the lotus.

Avaris (Aviris) This old city was located in the northeastern area of the Nile Delta, near the ancient city of Tell el-Dab’a, which was a vast harbor for Egypt. Avaris was the capital for the Hyksos while they ruled from the 13th to the end of the 17th Dynasties. In the ancient Egyptian culture of the 18th Dynasty, it could be stated that the family of Ramses controlled this area; Ramses I and his son, Seti, made it Egypt’s capital.

Avishai/Avi . . . See Ata

Ay A man much like Sean Connery, Ay was the man to see for four kings and one Pharaoh. He ruled after Akhenaten/Pharaoh due to his love for Egypt, but he was perhaps one of the most unsung noble heroes in recorded history. As with Horemheb, many scholars claim that Ay was not a legitimate heir to the throne, even though his brother Anen was. He was titled, “Supervisor to the Horses of his majesty, Standard carrier at the right of the King, royal scribe and Divine Father”.  

Ba The Ba is the soul in the physical body of a living being and was often depicted as a bird with a human head flying out of the tomb to join with the Ka in the afterlife.

Babylon An ancient Mesopotamian city located on the Euphrates River, with the Tigris River nearby and to the east. Today it is Al Hilah in Babil, Iraq. The holy city Babylon, the “Gateway of the Gods”, held one of the Seven Wonders of the World with its Hanging Gardens. Ancient Mesopotamia/Babylon was one of the great players in the ancient world. 

Baphomet The nine tribes and early Church seized upon the words of Herodotus (Greek historian, 425 – 484 b.c.) where he said that the god Pan was connected the divine ram (Osiris) at Mendes, and this birthed the Devil. Pan was a god of “Fertility, shepherds, flocks and music”, and this is how Herodotus related with Osiris. Yet, Pan also had the legs, feet, and horns of a “goat”, and this is the basis for the early Church seizing the opportunity to turn Osiris into a goat, then a Devil, and many years later, Baphomet. This is hardly a coincidence, for even the hieroglyphic for Osiris—the pentacle—became the sign of the Devil. [When widespread control of the masses began, other threats that could stop this had to be eliminated. There was the myth of Osiris and Isis, and it was fully loved by the entire Mediterranean for thousands of years. Even the Greeks and Rome allowed this myth, for it was just too deep in the hearts of the people. The only way to end this myth was not to initially outlaw Osiris and Isis but first engage fear in the people. The Church reversed the myth of the good god Osiris, which was under the sign of the apple and the fish, and they invented the Devil. Naturally, Isis was also a threat, so to control women, they accepted Mary and identified Mary Magdalene as a prostitute and not a disciple. The love stubbornly held in the hearts of the people was replaced by fear. In a few generations, Osiris, the ancient good god that educated the people how to stop war and cultivate the land, became the Goat of Mendes, or Baphomet. Terror and the Dark Ages occurred because many could not even share their past devotion for Osiris, Isis, or any similar god. The Crusades and Holy Wars began, and when the Church became lost in evil, the Inquisitions transcended, and imprisonment, torture, and mass murder could be found everywhere in Europe and England. To judge the Church by its actions, one must conclude that its invention of the Devil was not only a diseased spiritual impropriety, but it also initiated the longest darkness of humanity. In such times it was natural that the word “faith” began to appear, and the fear of the Devil was forced upon the psyche of the people. Also, the burning fires of Hell were pressure-fed by recitals such as Dante’s Divine Comedy, which depicted a mostly terrifying account into the realms of death.] See also . . .Mendes/Djedet

Bast The Egyptian cat goddess depicted as the daughter of Amen or Ra and/or the wife of Ptah.  Bast was either a loving protective goddess of the home, or Sekhmet, perhaps the most destructive god of all. This comes from the myth where humanity was treating the sun god Ra wrongly, so he sent Sekhmet to teach humanity a lesson. When she was about to slaughter all of humanity, the sun god Ra sends barrels of godly beer to be placed in her path. Being colored red like blood, she mistook it for blood and soon became inebriated; this saved humanity. Sekhmet is also known as a healer goddess.  

Bee The bee was possibly the most respected living thing in Egypt. Osiris was worshipped as the Hwt bjt, “the Mansion of the Bee”. Some kings were of the Sedge and Bee, which indicated north and south Egypt. Ancient texts state that humanity was formed out of the god Ra, where his tears formed bees. The bee pollinates and is important for the continuation of life on this planet.

Beni Hassan (Beni Hasan) Ancient Egyptian burial place located in Middle Egypt between Cairo and Asyut. In the tomb of Khnumhotep II, there is a mural of Abraham’s family with the leader’s name, “Gift of the father”; this is likely the family of Abraham, and their leader is Hagar. Beni Hassan is a very special place, not only due to Abraham and Hagar, but also because south of the burial place is a temple built by Hatshepsut to honor the goddess Pakhet. Also nearby there are Amarna and Hermopolis, where it is said that the Holy Family lived. The region also has temples built by Ramses II and Horemheb. This area is perhaps one of the most religious places on the planet, for it is where all three Abrahamic religions began.

Benjamin The tribe of Benjamin came from Benjamin, the son of Jacob and Rachel. He was the younger brother of Joseph and loyal to him. For whatever reason, the name of his wife has been hidden, but he had ten sons. Benjamin died on his birthday, and it is said by rabbinical sources that Benjamin died without ever committing one single sin.

Bible Religious texts containing the Old Testament (Judaism) and the New Testament (Christianity).

Buddha Siddhartha Gautama (563 b.c. to 483 b.c.) founded Buddhism, a peaceful religion.

Canaan In the Bible, Canaan is basically today’s Israel and Palestine. 

Christianity When first formed, Christianity was a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Jesus/Christ. The Greek word Christ means “anointed one”. The basic message is of peace, forgiveness, and love. Also, it is clear that Jesus condemned the religious authorities, for his message was mainly to bring the teachings back to the sign of the fish, which was the sign with Joseph and Osiris. 

Dan The son of Jacob and Bilhah. He was the first son of Bilhah and the fifth son of Jacob. 

Darkness The term “darkness” can mean many things and even in an opposite polarity. Darkness in the 10 plagues is commonly accepted as number nine. Darkness was often personified with evil, but this kept the ancient family of man in touch with the element of fire and the nighttime sky with its countless stars. The daily sacrifice just to eat brought not only a connection to the sky above and the divine but also with nature. Yet, since the electric lightbulb, darkness has become just another taken-for-granted flip-of-the-switch, while the majority never gets to experience a simple sunset, the stars, and moon. This material path of life and the lack of nature’s connection (as where most people never witness a sacrifice) brought a disconnect with the divine and often profane beliefs, not only of ancient man but also of the divine.  

David (King David) Although David did slay the giant Goliath and became the early king of Israel, few people know the true historical David.David is a paradox, for if one judges by a person’s actions, David often acted on his own behalf. He became a traitor and fought with his people’s archenemy, the Philistines, but when the chance arrived, he returned to Israel and took control. Later as king he committed adultery with Bathsheba, Uriah the Hittite’s wife. Subsequently, he sent Uriah into a battle and commanded that the army abandon Uriah on the battlefield. It was King David who formed the City of David, which was later called Jerusalem and became the center of Israel’s religion. He even sent for the Ark of the Covenant, which eliminated the holy place of Shiloh, where three times a year early Jews made a pilgrimage. Shiloh held the sacred Tabernacle and Ark; the elimination of the sacred Tabernacle marked a defiant move to what was most sacred.

Dekanawida The Great Prophet and Peacemaker was born as a Huron (Wyandot) of the Iroquois nation. The prophet of the Iroquois nation assembled the five tribes and explained how their fighting was wrong. He united the nation and predicted that all nations will have peace. The Peacemaker was similar to Osiris (Egypt), Quetzalcoatl (Aztec), Pahana (Hopi), and Kukulcan (Maya).  

Edom The Kingdom of Edom comes from the descendants of Esau, Jacob’s twin. Although Jacob tricked his father Isaac for the firstborn inheritance and Esau was furious, with good cause, Jacob and Esau did eventually resolve their differences. Edom was south of Israel (Kingdom of Judah) and quite large. When Israel’s King Saul ruled, he defeated Edom, but when David arrived, he ruled Edom with a sword, which the Edomites resented and their desire for revenge grew. When Nebuchadnezzar II overthrew Israel, the Edomites seized the opportunity and helped plunder Jerusalem.

Egypt Ancient Egypt remains a mystery, for although scholars have learned from physical evidence, it is as if gaining incomplete lyrics to a song and the notes are unknown. Most of the artifacts that were discovered in Egypt were stolen and truly belong where they were found.  Perhaps the closest society to ancient Egypt today would be the Native Americans, and if someone took their sacred burial remains and displayed them, they would surely demand a return. Ancient Egypt had its flaws, but its culture and nation lasted for at least 3,300 years; Rome lasted for 533 years, and Greece (including the Minoans) lasted for approximately 1,500 years. 

Enkomi Located in northwestern Cyprus, Enkomi was a prosperous port from the 16th to 12th centuries b.c. This port was primarily a trading center for copper.

Ephraim The second son of Joseph and Aseneth. Upon his deathbed Jacob blessed Ephraim as the firstborn, which put him above not only his full elder brother, but after Joseph died, Ephraim was considered to be above all other uncles. 

Esau He was the twin brother of Jacob. The twins were born of Isaac and Rebekah, and they were the grandsons of Abraham and Sara. Esau was the son to inherit the firstborn birthright, but a story exists wherein Jacob was given the birthright because Esau was hungry; therefore, Jacob was given the birthright for a bowl of lentil soup. Later, as Isaac was dying, under the guidance of his mother, Jacob tricked his father into believing that he was Esau and he was there to receive the inheritance. Naturally, once Esau discovered the deception Jacob had to flee, but eventually the twins met and forgiveness took place. Esau married Adah (or Basemath) and his cousin Mahalath (or Basemath/Bashemath) daughter of Ishmael.   

Ethiopia (Nubia/Kush) The land of Ethiopia was known as the land of gold, and it was filled with mystery in the past and present. In ancient Egypt they traded with the people of Cush (Kush), Nubia, Punt, and Yam. Ethiopia not only had rare wood like ebony, it also had gold, ivory, incense, iron ore, copper, precious stones, skins, ostrich feathers, and countless species of animals. In the city of Meroe, there are more than two hundred pyramids of the 25th Egyptian Dynasty. Akhenaten’s mother Queen Tiye was likely from Ethiopia. Concerning the early Jews, this is where Thutmosis/Moses won a battle and married the Cushite queen of this land. She was with him on the Exodus, while Zipporah and their sons were not. Furthermore, the three tribes were sent to live in Ethiopia before Moses’ 430-year Exodus; they remained there for forty-plus years. There was also the Queen of Sheba from Ethiopia and her son with Solomon. There is an authentic 5th century Hebrew temple in Elephantine, which is on the border of Ethiopia (Cush).  There is also the possibility that the Ark of the Covenant, or part of it, exists in Ethiopia today. DNA testing on Ethiopians and today’s Jews has proven the existence of a genetic link. Today, there are approximately 100,000 Ethiopian Jews (Falashas) living in Israel, while thousands still wait to reunite with their families. Presently, Israel has stopped this repatriation, claiming there is a lack of evidence.         

Exodus (400 and 430) There are several notable Exoduses during the time period discussed in this book. Preparation for the 400-year Exodus began while Joseph was Vizier of Egypt. After Joseph died, his Queen Aseneth ruled Egypt and continued to prepare for the Promised Land. Their granddaughter Sherah built three sacred cities with the God-given name of Aseneth—Refuge. By the time the 400th year arrived, the descendants of Rachel were firmly living in the Promised Land, as God predicted; therefore, they were the “Chosen Ones”. Some of Hagar and Esau’s descendants were also a part of God’s prediction. Thutmosis/Moses led the 430-year Exodus, and the nine tribes in Amarna participated in a 40-year exodus. The three tribes of Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh were forcibly moved out of the Promised Land, and soon thereafter, the nine tribes began their Exodus. [As time passed, PTSD developed and was prevalent amongst the nine tribes, while new laws were enacted; a system of chicanery formed.] 

Followers of Horus, Shemsu Heru InPredynastic Egypt, the “Followers of Horus” are mentioned. From the Turin Canon, a Roman-period papyrus, and other sources, the Followers of Horus were closely linked to the gods Osiris and Isis. A myth exists that the “Sacred Shemsu Heru” consisted of a tribe with the sacred blood of the family of Ra, which is Osiris, Isis, Set, Nepthys, and others. Once the Egyptian god Amen entered the picture (18th Dynasty), they became “hidden” and also known as “the Sacred Shadows”. 

Gad The first son of Jacob and Zilpah, and the seventh son for Jacob.

Gandhi Mohandas Gandhi was one of the greatest spiritual leaders since Muhammad. Born in India on October 2, 1869, he died on January 30, 1948. Gandhi proved to the world how nonviolence and revolution was possible. He was against the Jews taking possession of Palestinian land, he was against the British and their tyranny against the people of India, and he fought for South African rights. What puts Gandhi apart from most leaders in all of history is his total acceptance and devotion to truth.   

God Whatever you make up or believe. If God is a deity at all, which would remove the highest form of being supernatural, then perhaps God to you, in this cosmos of polarity, can only be slightly comprehended by yourself, by living pure. As you do have the power to destroy and create, this makes you a god or goddess. Not accepting this truth disassociates your mind with reality, which opens a door for illusion to enter. God is an unknown, and if someone obtained full enlightenment, the distance is too great to properly explain. It is also impossible to fully know God due to the fact we are here to experience and to simply meditate, pray, or memorize holy books. Without the priceless “experience” of life and spirit, one may never know a thing about God.

Hagar . . . See Ata

Hapiru (Apiru) Some scholars now accept that the Hapiru were the first Israelites. One text describes the Hapiru as soldiers, who were descendants of Joseph and Aseneth, and laborers, who were from the other nine tribes. In the Amarna letters [an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives during the New Kingdom], the writers ask Pharaoh for military assistance against the Hapiru. The Pharaoh refused, and the reason was simple—the Hapiru causing havoc were three or nine or all of the 12 tribes, and Amarna was built by the nine tribes.

Hathor The meaning of Hathor includes many positions: the house of Horus, the Lady of the West, Mistress of Life, Lady of Dendra, Lady to the Limit of the Cosmos, Lady of the Southern Sycamore, Lady of Malachite, and the Powerful Goddess. She was a goddess with a sun disc between cow horns upon her head and was perhaps one of the most popular goddesses in ancient Egypt. Most gods in ancient Egypt had a priesthood with the same gender, but Hathor had priests of both genders. Hathor was beauty, dance, the arts, and everything that communicates the words of Maat to common man. Myths concerning the Seven Sacred Hathors exist in which typically a hero arrives and the seven sing of his future; their lyrics were enchanted projection from the divine. It is no coincidence that there were seven cities where Hathor was worshipped. Also, in early times Hathor was the goddess Sekhmet, an all-powerful goddess over humanity.

Hatmehit (Hatmehyt/Hatmehet) The fish goddess of Mendes in the Delta. See also . . . Osiris

Hatshepsut Her name means, “Foremost of Noble Ladies”. She was the fifth ruler of Egypt in the 18th Dynasty because her brother was too young to rule. She was a successful female ruler like Aseneth/Sobekneferu, with prolific building projects to her credit such as her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, repairing the temple of Mut in Karnak, the Barque Shrine, and obelisks that still remain today. Even at Beni Hassan she created the temple of Pakhet/Artemis, a hunter goddess. She also organized a voyage to the land of Punt. In art, she was depicted with all the symbols of reigning as a pharaoh, including the royal beard. Once her brother (Thutmose III) grew into manhood, she suddenly disappeared. Her cartouches and images were later eliminated or disfigured. Hatshepsut’s Tomb of Pakhet near Beni Hassan enforces the fact that her bloodline was from Joseph and Aseneth, via Ahmose-Nefertari. See also . . . Thutmose II and ThutmoseIII

Hebrew In this book, a distinction is made between “Hebrew” and “Judaism”. The three tribes of Joseph and Benjamin (Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin) accomplished the 400-year Exodus, which was predicted by God. This book refers to the religion of these three tribes as “Hebrew”, for it was the same as Jacob’s and Abraham’s, with the same God. These three tribes were, in fact, already living in the Promised Land in the 400th year and did not participate in the 430-year Exodus led by Thutmosis/Moses with the nine tribes. They are descendants of the two sons of Joseph and Aseneth (Ephraim and Manasseh) and Benjamin, Joseph’s closest brother. Thutmosis convinced Akhenaten to send these three tribes to Kush, which opened the way for the nine tribes to move into the Promised Land and lay claim that they were the “Chosen Ones” and it was rightfully their land. Therefore, “Jewish” or “Israelite” refers to the other nine tribes. See also . . . Three Tribes

Hittites The Hittite nation was north of Canaan. They wrote in cuneiform and were Egypt’s archenemy. At the time of Akhenaten, the Hittites gained some ground, and later, the Ramses family attempted to take the land back. When Egypt’s co-regent Queen Ankhsenpaaten wrote the Hittite king to send a son so that he may be made the next king of Egypt, if she was sincere, this would have quickly made the Hittites a power nearly equal to latter-day Rome. However, she only desired to kill the prince once he entered Egypt to revenge Moses, and she did. No matter which side one takes concerning the Hittites, they were a powerful nation. 

Horemheb Horemheb came from the same area as Joseph—Heraklepolis Magna (el-Medina) on the west bank of the Nile near the Faiyum. He was a hereditary prince since his father was Neby, a nobleman and prince,and his mother was Tatjuia.His sister was Meret-Hor. Generalissimo Horemheb was a child when Amenhotep III ruled, and he slowly worked his way up the ladder. As a general, with his sidekick Ramses I, they saved Egypt from total ruin, and in a few years began a powerful golden age. Ay, the right-hand man of five kings, was Horemheb’s stepfather, and if he was not one of the greatest powerhouses in history, others around young Horemheb were; Amenhotep III, Mutemwiya, Sitamun, Tiye, Amenhotep the Son of Hapu (later deified), Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Ramose, Yuya, Tjuyu (Tuya), and the Sacred Horshesu tribe all taught Horemheb. Horemheb’s titles when he was only an official were: “Hereditary Prince, Fan Bearer to the right Side of the King, Chief Commander of the Army, Attendant to the King in his footsteps in the foreign countries of the south and north, the King’s Messenger to Foreign Countries, and Sole Companion that was beside the King on the battlefield on that day of killing Asiatics”.

Horus The son of Isis and Osiris. Hathor was his wife. Horus was a sky god and of the hawk/falcon and of the sun, which means that the gods Ra and Aten were similar if not the same. There is also Horus the Elder.     

Hyksos (Hyk-Khase/shepherd kings) The Hyksos were a mixture of Canaanites, Syrians, and Abraham’s descendants. In the beginning of the 13th Dynasty, the Hyksos ruled the northern (Faiyum and Delta) regions of Egypt. Even though Egyptians to the south eventually disliked the Hyksos, Egypt grew in technology and in agricultural areas. The Hyksos were advanced in chariot and horse skills, and for more than three hundred years they boosted Egypt’s power in the region. “The Tale of Sinuhe” reveals how there was a peaceful period between Egypt and Canaan.  Although the Hyksos were a melting pot of tribes, and they did peacefully take over the northern region, vital social gains took place and Egypt became a growing giant. Many Hyksos worshipped the Egyptian god Set. Evidence indicates the Ramses era was either related or closely linked to the Hyksos. Hatshepsut’s Tomb of Pakhet near Beni Hassan has a full denunciation of the Hyksos, for they did rule half of Egypt and the 12 tribes. 

Hymn to the Sun This beautifultext is nearly exact to Psalm 104 in the Bible. 

Isaac Son of Abraham. Father of Jacob. In Judaism, Isaac is one of the three patriarchs.

Ishmael He was Abraham’s first child with Hagar. Abraham’s wife Sarah made sure that Ishmael did not receive the firstborn’s inheritance by exiling Hagar and her son into the wilderness of Paran to die. But, just like when Sarah sent Hagar into the wilderness the first time, an angel of God saved her, but this time, God personally saved Hagar and Ishmael. Ishmael married an Egyptian woman and had 12 sons who formed 12 tribes. His sons were named Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. Ishmael also had a daughter Bashemath (Basemath) or Mahalath who married Esau, the twin brother of Jacob.       

Islam is based on the Quran. It is the religious faith of Muslims including belief in Allah as the sole deity and in Muhammad as his prophet. The word Islam means “peace” and “submission to the will of God”.  

Isis (Aset/Auset) Goddess of love, fertility, nature, and symbolically the “throne”, as the hieroglyphic for Isis is the seat/throne. Isis was a patron of mothers and their children, medicine, agriculture, and magic. The Greeks and Romans also worshipped Isis. Isis was the daughter of Geb and Nut, and a sister to Osiris, Set, and his wife Nepthys. She was so powerful that when Ra became old and frail, she tricked him to gain his secret magical power. Inthe end of times she attends the judgment scene of humanity with Osiris.

Isaac (Yitzchok) Son of Abraham. Father of Jacob. One of the three patriarchs in Judaism.

Issachar The son of Jacob and Leah, and the ninth son of Jacob. Founder of the tribe Issachar. 

Ita (Itakeret/Ata) . . . See Ata

Jacob (Ya’ akov) Son of Isaac. Father of twelve sons who became the tribes of Israel. One of the three patriarchs in Judaism.  

Japheth One of the sons of Noah. Due to deception or a later edit, he is either the oldest or the youngest son, depending on the version read; he is named last in Genesis 5:32 and 9:18 but first in Chapter 10. As many know, even today lies often are incorporated when it comes to inheritance, and it was the same in ancient times.   

Jerusalem (Salem) The City of David today is the capital of Israel. It is the most religious city in the world, for this is where the Abrahamic religions focus their claims. The truth is, Jerusalem in early Israel was a small village and was originally allocated to the tribe of Benjamin. 

Jesus The central figure of Christianity known as Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus Christ, or the Prince of Peace. Christians view him as the Son of God and the Messiah, while Islam considers him a prophet and the Messiah. Some Christians believe in the virgin birth and his ascension to Heaven, while in Islam it is believed that his body went directly to Heaven. His religion was nearly a carbon copy of Joseph’s, which was a copy of Osiris’; the Sanhedrin would not allow such secrets to be revealed to the people.

Jewish In this book, this term refers to the Israelites, or the nine tribes. See also . . . Hebrew and Nine Tribes

John the Baptist A relative of Jesus, prophet, and preacher who baptized the people in the Jordan River, which surely put him at odds with the Jewish leaders. In Christianity, Mandaeism (Mandaeanism), the Bahai faith, and Islam, he is considered a prophet. Many believe that the Essenes influenced him, for their beliefs were very similar; both held deep condemnations against the religious authorities. Although Herod Antipas put him to death, there was likely pressure put on him by religious authorities, much as with Herod and Pilate concerning Jesus. If one puts together John, a strong messenger who baptized and is accepted by many, and Jesus, with his emphasis on peace, forgiveness, and love, and of the sign of the fish, this duo would have been a nightmare for the religious Jewish authorities, for the message was the same as Osiris and Joseph’s. It is a miracle their words got out at all.   

Joseph When Joseph arrived, it was clear that he had a spiritual journey to undertake. His father Jacob realized early on that Joseph was more than he was and prepared him to lead the Hebrews.  Yet, putting him above all his other sons created jealousy amongst Joseph’s nine other brothers. But, even though his brothers attempted to kill Joseph and sell him into slavery, such evil still could not overcome the spirit of Joseph, for within his lifetime, in absolute peace and forgiveness, he built a perfect spiritual foundation and accomplished God’s promise for the Hebrews. In this process, Joseph also healed most of the family disagreements. He actually went into battle for one of the tribes of Hagar, which was always despised by the descendants of the nine brothers who were jealous of Joseph. If the nine brothers had accepted Joseph’s forgiveness and the pathway of peace, the Middle East would have lived in peace for almost 4,000 years . . . the way it was originally intended. Another aspect of Joseph’s life story is when his brothers, minus Benjamin, sold Joseph into slavery; he was eventually sold to Potiphar. The story says that Potiphar’s wife wanted Joseph to make love to her, but after he refused, she lied and told her husband that Joseph attempted to rape her. Joseph was put in jail, but eventually the king heard about Joseph’s skill to read dreams. Soon thereafter, Joseph was made the Vizier of Egypt and he married Aseneth. [Even today, some Jews still talk of Joseph with anger; therefore, if they did edit the story to make him a possible rapist, this does make sense, for the Torah is the Holy Book of the nine tribes and such wordplay would surely make followers, even in Christianity, subconsciously think that Joseph may have been a rapist.]

Josephus Flavius (a.d. 37 – c. 100) Jewish historian Josephus camefrom a priestly and noble heritage.His writings have aided latter-day historians about many subjects, from geography to details about the people of the time. In Europe, many read his writings. His work has not only helped clarify the history of Israel but also early Christianity.

Judah The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, Judah did appear to be the “leader” of the brothers. When the other brothers were about to murder Joseph, it was Judah who suggested they sell him as a slave to the unexpected arriving Ishmaelites (descendants of Hagar). He had the blood of the Kenites (descendants from Kenturah, the third wife of Abraham and possibly Hagar), and they lived in the area where God saved Hagar and her temple began early Islam, which is today the Kaaba in Mecca. Judah married the daughter of Shua, a Canaanite. He was appointed the first leader of Israel (nine tribes) upon arrival in the Promised Land.        

Judgment (of the dead) The judgment scene is when a deceased person is taken by the hand by Anubis and led to the scales of judgment. The goddess Maat, who represents divine order, justice, and truth, controlled the scales. The person’s heart is weighed against Maat’s feather of truth, and if filled with sin, the heart is heavier than the feather. If heavy, the devourer gets to eat the heart, which is the life of the person. The Recorder is the god Thoth, and the final Judges are Isis and Osiris.  

Ka The Ka is the spiritual embodiment of the person. When an Egyptian died, it was said he/she went to his/her Ka. See also . . . Ba

Kaaba In Saudi Arabia, the Kaaba is the most sacred site in Islam. It was first built by Hagar’s son Ishmael, and likely also by Abraham. It is a square building and built around a mysterious black stone. See also . . . Mecca

Kabbalah The Jewish (nine tribes) mystical tradition that traditionally was not taught to anyone under 40. Magic is a part of the Kabbalah.

Kadesh (Qadesh) The site in western Syria of many famous battles. It is located near another famous battleground, Megiiddo, which is known today as Armageddon. Near Kadesh, Ramses I and Generalissimo Horemheb participated in a large battle with the Hittites. Later, Ramses’ son Seti and his son, Ramses the Great, engaged in a battle there.  

Karnak Temple (Al Karnak) A temple in Luxor and perhaps one of the largest temples in the world. See . . . Temple Karnak

Keftiu Perhaps Crete/Cyprus and/or the Aegean.

Kenite The descendants of Kentura.

Keturah (Kentura/Ketura/Kenturah) The third wife of Abraham and possibly Hagar. Their descendants were Kenites. 

Kemet The native word for Ancient Egypt.

Kheti Wife of Amenemhat.

Khnumhotep A governor during the time of Amenemhat III in the 12th Dynasty. Khnumhotep’s tomb is in Beni Hassan and is known as the “Tomb of Hairdressers” and/or the “Tomb of Two Brothers”. In the tomb there is a clear depiction of gay brothers or lovers. Zahi Hawass, the Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt, says they were possibly twins, but the gay factor cannot be denied, for the fact of hairdressers and the depictions of embracing and affection for another says a lot.

Khonsu (Chonsu/Kensu/Chons/Khonshu/Khons) Son of Amen and Mut. In Luxor (Thebes), the Temple of Karnak was mainly for him. His name means “Traveler, Pathfinder, Defender”, and this is due to the fact that he is a cosmic God that incarnates within cosmic royalty. In Kom Ombo, he was worshipped as the son of Sobek and Hathor. There is also a temple for Khonsu in Karnak. He was called “the Great Snake that fertilizes the Cosmic Egg in Creation” and has been referred to as “The Greatest God of the Great Gods”. He was spoken of in the early pyramid texts. 

Kohein The descendants of Aaron who became the priesthood charged with performing various rites, including animal sacrifice. They remained the ruling priesthood until the destruction of the Temple, at which time the priesthood of the rabbis began to rule. The term Kohein is the source of the common Jewish surname “Cohen”, but not all Cohens are Koheins and not all Koheins are Cohens.

Korah Before the 430-year Exodus, Korah was a treasurer for Egypt and was the recipient of one-third of Joseph’s wealth, which was likely the largest in recorded history. Even though he was of the Levi tribe, Korah was highly educated. The Torah reveals how he spoke for common people. With sharp-minded Korah, the wealthiest man alive at the time, and his watchful eye for the common man with an undeniable leadership quality, he was a prime threat to the survival of Aaron and Thutmosis. [The only other threat would be the noble Hebrew princes with authentic Israelite blood.]  

Koran . . . SeeQuran

Kush (Kash/Coosh/Cush) Area of Nubia, Africa. The land of Kush is where a civilization developed in the southern part of the Nile River Valley, in what is today the Republic of Sudan, in the area where the Nile splits into the White and Blue Nile. This land brought Egypt incredible wealth by its gold, incense, ebony, and ivory. Knowingly or unknowingly, many studies erroneously use the terms Kush and Nubia interchangeably; they actually refer to the peoples who lived in the southern part of modern-day Egypt and the northern part of present-day Sudan. Some scholars refer to Kush as the ancient name for Ethiopia. See also . . . Ethiopia and Nubia

Lady Liberty TheStatue of Liberty was officially titled “Liberty Enlightening the World” and for good reason. There stands the possibility to fulfill ancient prophecies; it was made to represent Aseneth, Joseph’s wife and Queen of Egypt, and the goddess Isis. Before Liberty was created, Bartholdi, the sculptor, almost built a statue of the goddess Isis at the entrance of the Suez Canal, but an economic depression occurred and Egypt never commissioned the statue. In Roman mythology, Libertas was a goddess for freedom.

Levi The tribe of Levi is best described by the words of Jacob when he curses Simeon and his brother Levi. “Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel.” (Genesis 49:7)

Lisht el-Lisht A village in Egypt, south of Cairo. This area has two 12th Dynasty pyramids—one from Amenemhat I and one from Senusret I. 

Maat Goddess of order. She is absolute truth and justice. Egyptians positioned her like a hood ornament, for without Maat, lies, perceptions, and chaos rule.

Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469 – 1527 a.d.)Italian writer, philosopher, musician, playwright, diplomat, and considered one of the founders of modern political science. With his actions of deception, fear, violence, and often cruelty, his surname became the basis for the modern political word “Machiavellian”, which means the opposite of any good moral value or virtue, or the use of cunning and deceitful tactics in politics. Author of the political treatise, The Prince, and The Art of War.

Machir The eldest son of Manasseh, Machir married a Benjaminite.

Manasseh Older son of Joseph and brother of Ephraim. He had an Aramean concubine; they had a son Machir. He also fathered Gilead. There is some evidence as in the “Book of Numbers” that Gilead originated from the priestly reign, which would agree with Jacob’s inheritance, for Jacob never intended the tribe of Levi to be the priesthood. 

Manetho Egyptian priest and historian in the third century b.c.

Mary Magdalene (Mary of Magdala) In early Christian writing, Mary is described as “the apostle of apostles”, while in apocryphal texts (which the Church refused to accept and banned), Mary was loved more than all the apostles. Non-scripture texts state that Mary was wealthy, and in the early Church she had a large following named “the Cult of Magdalene”.Much like Isis, Osiris, and Joseph being a threat, in 600 a.d., the Church and Pope Gregory declared that Mary was a prostitute; it was not until 1969 (1300 years later) that the Catholic Church finally retracted its claim as “wrong”.

Mecca The most holy site of Islam, located in today’s Saudi Arabia. It began with Hagar and her son Ishmael, when Sarah cast them out into the wilderness to die and God saved them. In Islam, it is said that soon Abraham arrived and helped his son Ishmael build a home and temple. The main focal point today in Mecca is the Kaaba, and it is likely the area of the temple that Hagar, Abraham, and Ishmael built. Interestingly, a cousin of Hagar who lived in Egypt and was a priest of God Almighty was named Kaba.

Mediterranean In ancient Egypt, this sea was called the “Great Green”. It was connected to the Atlantic Ocean and surrounded by the “Mediterranean region”, almost completely enclosed by land. The sea is technically a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is normally identified as a separate body of water. It was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between people living throughout the region.

Megiddo (Tel Megiddo) Biblical place of battle in Canaan. There were many battles at this location, and through misinterpretation of the Bible, this unchecked negativity has grown into predicting Armageddon [which means the Mount of Megiddo]. 

Meket-Aton One of the firstborn who died in Amarna. Daughter of Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti.

Memphis The ancient name of Memphis was Ineb Hedj, which means “The White Walled City”.  It is located twelve miles south of Cairo on the west bank of the Nile. Generally, Memphis was the capital of Egypt with the exception of Thebes (Luxor). This is where Thutmosis/Moses was a priest and governor.Nearby is Sakara with the Step Pyramid and the pyramids of Dashur with the “Bent Pyramid” and the “Red Pyramid”, the pyramid of Amenemhat II and of Amenemhat III (Black Pyramid). At Meidum, there are the pyramids of Meidum and the Pyramid of Dashur.  Today, Memphis is peaceful as it was 5,000 years ago.

Mendes/Djedet The famous city of Mendes is located in the eastern Nile Delta. During the 29th Dynasty, it was the capital of Egypt. Famous people of this time period visited Mendes, such as Ptolemy, Herodotus, and Strabo, due to its culture and vast history, for Mendes goes back in time to over 3,000 b.c. The major god of Mendes was the ram, Banebdjedet, which was the Ba of Osiris and his consort Hatmehit (the fish goddess). The nine tribes and early Church seized upon the words of Herodotus (Greek historian, 425 – 484 b.c.) where he said that the god Pan was connected the divine ram (Osiris) at Mendes, and this birthed the Devil.

Meri-Ra The political high priest of Akhenaten’s religion who worked with Akhenaten’s father, Amenhotep III.

Merit-Amon (Merit-Aton/Meritamon) Princess in the Amarna age. Merit was Queen with King Smenkhere, and when he mysteriously died, Merit withdrew from life and reappeared a different woman. Merit possibly became friendly with Ankhsenpaaten later in life. After the death of Horemheb’s second wife, Reina Mutnodjmet, Merit ascended to the throne.

Midianite The people of Midian. Strong evidence (by pottery) suggests that the Midianites inhabited Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and southern Israel about 3,200 years ago. The man Midian was the son of Abraham and his third wife Kenturah. [There is also the possibility that Hagar, who was Kenturah, and Abraham lived together after Sarah died.] Midian’s five sons were Ephah, Epher, Enoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All the sons were the forefathers of the Midianites. When Thutmosis/Moses killed the Egyptian, he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, a priest of Midian. From all accounts, Moses had enormous respect for Jethro, possibly due to the fact Jethro was also an Egyptian exile. Midian was friendly with the Kedemites, the Amalekites, and the Israelites. The Israelites got along with Midian until a plague broke out among the Israelites, and thereafter the Midianites were slaughtered; they were decapitated and then their heads were exhibited on poles. Regarding the 32,000 virgins who survived the mass execution (Numbers 31:1–54), Moses commanded his men to take them and do whatever they desired with them.

Minoan The Bronze Age civilization living on the island of Crete. They were known as the “sea-kings”. This is the Mycenaean Greek culture, and their royals and nobles lived in splendor that is equal to today’s finest standards. They had some of the most beautiful homes, often three stories with plumbing, beautiful rooms with colorful murals, as well as some of the most elegant pottery of the time. Yet, what made the Minoans so powerful was their seagoing skills, for they were the great Bronze Age Greek shipping tycoons. The entire Mediterranean relied on the Minoans, but when the volcano Thera erupted, the Minoans had to find another place to live, and it took a full generation for the sea-kings to gather. The Iron Age began when the largest group of Minoans began to live like the future Vikings, becoming raiders, and soon they became the feared Sea Peoples. Typically, within a generation after the eruption of Thera, most Minoans blended with the Philistines; thus, with the land of the giants united with the greatest seafaring nation, together they became a power that most nations feared.

Miriam Older sister of Thutmosis/Moses, and it is said also the sister of Aaron. She was considered a prophetess. 

Monotheism Monotheism is misunderstood, for nearly every religion that followed Egypt adapted portions of its religion, cutting and pasting to form its new religion. Angels and saints began with the Abrahamic religions with the theme of monotheism, while the previous religions were perceived as polytheistic, or having more than one god. But in reality that was not true, for the polytheistic religion was actually monotheistic, and the Abrahamic religions have become polytheistic. Many of the previous religions did have gods, and often they had wings, which was to indicate cosmic spirituality and not only earthbound souls. The reason for animal heads was to indicate the DNA connection to the god, as man is to the monkey. The gods served as role models for humanity to follow or become; this is what they called “the Stairway to Heaven”.  When groups work in the same spirit, they harmonize. This stairway consisted as a god or goddess for each step, and one’s god was his/her spiritual “trade boss”. For example, as there was Geb or Hapi for farmers, there were gods for scribes and thought—Thoth and Saa, Isis or Nekhebet for motherhood, and one for anything in life. To Egyptians, their god was their dream, and a circle formed between the Egyptians and their god, for their work was their god and their religion. Workers would perhaps look to their god or goddess not as a supernatural being, but a god or goddess that knew all in their trade and they were the ultimate—like a divine role model, with spirit guiding the way. One’s prayers, magic, and dreams circled with one’s life, job, and god. This made the society work together, for their religion was society and life as one. Also, workforces harmonized between other god workforces, for their physical bosses likely evolved from another god and he would know the workforce of the other god. As the three major religions claim to be monotheistic, in accepting Angels, it undeniably copied the gods, but for the most part they also cut out women/goddesses. Cutting out one-half of the full oneness (or the entire one)—eliminating women—put men in absolute control. This has proven to be a failure in today’s society.     

Moses See . . . Thutmosis

Mut (Maut/Mont) Mut means “mother of everything that was created”. Her titles were “World-Mother, Queen of the Goddesses, She who Gives Birth, Eye of Ra, Was Herself Not born of Any”.  

Mutemwiya A minor wife of Thutmose IV (18th Dynasty) and the mother of Amenhotep III. While Thutmose IV was king, his wives, Iaret and Nefertari, possessed the title of the “Great Royal Wife”; women with such a title typically had the royal bloodline/lineage. It seems likely the Thutmose clan had royal Egyptian blood, while the Amenhoteps had a mixture of Hebrew and Egyptian.  Mutemwiya actually ruled for her son, Amenhotep III, until he was old enough, and by then, she had helped raise Egypt above all other nations. She was highly honored by the Egyptians and buried in Thebes. Out of the many statues labeled Queen Tiy, many are actually beautiful Queen Mutemwiya. 

Mutnedjmet Her name was Reina Mutnodjmet.She wasthe second wife of King Horemheb and queen of Egypt. She was “King’s Great Wife, Sister of the King’s Great Wife, Mistress of the Two Lands, Lady of the North and South, Singer of Amun (Amen), Singer of Hathor”. It is believed that she died in the 13th year of Horemheb, according to a wine docket found in the Sakara tomb. 

Naphtali The second son of Jacob and Bilhah (Rachel’s servant), and father of the tribe  of Naphtali.

Neby The father of Horemheb. Neby married Tatjuia. In his childhood, Neby was educated with royalty. He became very powerful during Thutmose IV’s reign. Much on Neby is revealed by the Leiden Stela; he was the “Mayor of Tjaru, the Royal Messenger to all foreign Countries, Superintendent to the Fortress, Administrator to the Harem of the Wife of the King, Head of troops at Tjaru, Governor of the Lakes, Head of Medjayu, Boy of Kap, Nobleman and Prince, Important in his function, Great in the House of King, and the Supervisor at fort in Country of Wawat”. Because of his title “Nobleman and Prince”, this also makes his son Horemheb a prince. Neby’s mother would either be Iaret, Mutemwiya, Artatama, Merytra (Tiaa), Nefertari, or possibly from the family of Amenhotep II.

Nefertiti Most of the world knowsthe beauty of Nefertiti, from her bust found in the sculptors’ workshop of Thutmose; this iconic sculpture is now housed in the Neues Museum in Berlin, Germany. She was the first wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his queen for many years. Near the end of the Amarna era, chaos was spreading so quickly that she refused forgiveness, put on the blue battle helmet, and commanded a skirmish. Immediately she was exiled from the city, so she lived in Memphis in the home of Ay, while Thutmosis returned and took most of the people away from Amarna. When she returned, her city was desolate, partly in ruins, and nearly empty, with the exception for a new Mycenaean arrival (the Greeks), who arrived after the eruption of Thera. She soon mysteriously died, and so did her city.     

Nine Tribes The tribes that did the 430-year Exodus with Thutmosis. Every tribe within the nine were descendants of Joseph’s brothers who attempted to kill Joseph but instead eventually sold him into slavery. These nine tribes were not the “Chosen Ones” as they claim, for they did not prepare the Promised Land for the 400th year, and they were not living in the Promised Land on the 400th year. Their priesthood was formed upon the tribe of Levi, which was cursed by Jacob on his deathbed. The role of the priesthood was given to the tribe of Ephraim. See also . . . Jewish

Nubia Nubians were living among ancient Egyptians, but they were ostensible mostly in Upper Egypt. They also lived in the area of Kush (Ethiopia), present-day northern Sudan. See also . . . Ethiopia and Kush

Nuk Pu Nuk In Egyptian, Nuk Pu Nuk means “I am that I am”.

O Djat Concubine of Amenemhat II.

Opening of the Mouth Ceremony The Egyptian ritual that prepared the soul or tomb to be reborn. The ancient Egyptians believed that in order for a person’s soul to survive in the afterlife, it would need food and water. This special ritual was performed so that the person who died could eat and drink again in the afterlife. The ritual involved seventy-five parts. Amongst the many tools used in the ritual were the adaze and the peseshkaf.

Opet Festival The Opet Festival was a religious ritual where the king and queen would travel in royal barges from the Karnak Temple to the Luxor Temple. They would eventually arrive within the Holy of Holies, or the farthest and the most southern chamber where the sacred Ark of Amen was located. There the king would receive the divine essence of the God, and thus, the king became a divine ruler. The Luxor Temple revolved around the cosmic trinity of the god Amen (Amon), Mut, and their son Khonsu. The Opet festival lasted for approximately a moon, and this made the city of Thebes the place to go if you were wealthy. It was a deeply religious ritual mixed with what many today would relate with New Orleans’ festival of Mardi Gras or the Belgian city of Binche’s Mardi Gras festival.

Osiris (Aser/Ausar/Asar) God of the Dead or Duat. He was also the great judge of the dead. Osiris, his sister/wife/queen Isis, and their son Horus formed the triad of Abydos. His factual wife was the fish goddess Hatmehit. Osiris traveled teaching agriculture to the Egyptians; therefore, his color was typically green. The religion and myths of Osiris and Isis surrounded the Mediterranean, for the religion was of forgiveness and cultivating life, like the typical black soil of the region. His myths were from his two signs: (1) the hieroglyphic of Osiris—the pentacle (which all knew) and the apple, which when cut transversally displays its seeds in a perfect pentacle, and (2) the fish, which was also a prevalent sign with Joseph, through Aseneth. [The next famous religious individual with the sign of the fish was Jesus. All three religions—Osiris, Joseph, and Christianity—were built on the concept of forgiveness, with two also having another sign—the ankh/cross of life.] There is a spiritual brotherhood with Osiris and the God Amen. 

Pakhet (Pachet/Pehkhet/Phastet/Pasht/P?.t) “The night huntress” that wandered in the desert at night, hunting. There was an underground tomb that was built by Hatshepsut at Beni Hassan called “Cave of Artemis” (associated with the Greek huntress Artemis), and inside many mummified cats were discovered. Oddly, this tomb was dedicated to the cat goddess Pakhet. At the entrance, Hatshepsut stated her full denouncement of the Asiatics of Avaris (the Hyksos), who ruled Egypt from the 13th to the 18th Dynasties. There is a relationship between the goddess Pakhet and Abraham’s Hagar.

Panehesy (Pinhasy) “The Chief servitor of Aten, Second Prophet of the Lord of Two Lands, Seal-bearer of Lower Egypt”. He had a home and tomb in Amarna.

Paran (wilderness) The evidence suggests that the biblical Paran/wilderness is today’s Mecca.

Pharisees There were the Pharisees, Sadducees, and the Essenes under the Hasmonean rule with today’s Jews. The Pharisees were the workingman’s spiritual forefathers of today’s Judaism.  They believed that God gave Moses’ oral law to Thutmosis/Moses, and it was the main component along with the Torah, or the written oral law. They believed in the afterlife. The Pharisees also believed in a messiah and an eventual world peace.The Sadducees maintained a priestly sect, but unlike the Pharisees, they were elitists who rejected the oral law. They did not believe in the afterlife, for the Torah did not speak of it. The Essenes fully rejected both the Sadducees and the Pharisees, for they claimed that both were corrupt.  

Philistines In the land of Canaan where today Israel exists, there were the Philistines living on the southern coast. They became famous due to the stories of Sampson, Saul, David, and Samuel and their conflicts. They were the Israelites’ worst enemy. Some scholars refer to them as part of the Sea Peoples.

Pilate, Pontius Roman governor of Judaea from 26 – 36 a.d., he was the man who has been wrongly convicted for the death of Jesus. He did everything possible to let Jesus go, but due to the power of the Sanhedrin and its control over the people, Pilate eventually washed (literally) his hands of the situation. Perhaps one reason for Pilate’s good treatment toward Jesus was his wife, Claudia Procula, for the legend of her eventually brought a canonization in the Greek Orthodox Church for sainthood. Yet, Pilate got some last stinging words against the Sanhedrin by nailing a sign above Jesus on the cross saying: “Jesus of Nazareth/the King of the Jews”. Although the Sanhedrin angrily opposed, Pilate replied, “I’ve written what I’ve written”.

Plagues The ten plagues are: rivers turning to blood, frogs, lice, flies, disease on livestock, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, and the death of the firstborn.

Potiperah The priest of On whose daughter was named Aseneth; Joseph married her. The usage of many spellings in translating ancient texts makes one to wonder if Potiphar and Potiperah are the same person. If this is true, then it is likely that the story of Joseph going to jail was edited much in the same way that Mary Magdalene was made a prostitute. If one looks into the Book of Genesis Potiphar was an “officer of Pharaoh and Captain of the guard”. In Ancient Records of Egypt by James Breasted, there is a name Ptahwer, who is “Chief of the treasury and Master of the double cabinet”. This was also the time when Amenemhat III was king. From this, it can be concluded that Joseph was likely sold to Ptahwer and soon thereafter he married his daughter Aseneth. For more details see:  http://www.varchive.org/ce/joseph/htm.

Potiphar When his brothers, minus Benjamin, sold Joseph into slavery, he was eventually sold to Potiphar. The story says that Potiphar’s wife wanted Joseph to make love to her, but after he refused, she lied and told Potiphar that Joseph attempted to rape her. See also . . . Joseph

Psalm 104 A text that is almost exact with the “Hymn to the Sun”, which was written first.

Ptah/Atem The Egyptian creator/architect god worshipped in Memphis. He was also the god of creation, rebirth, and craftsmen. In essence, he was the first “Geek God” because with his words he created everything by speaking their names. The symbols of Ptah are the architects’ transit, plumb line, and level. 

Qatna (Tel- el-Mishrife) Place where the sphinx of Ita was found, located in modern-day Syria.

Quran (Koran/Alcoran/Al-Quran/Qur’an) The religious text of Islam. Islam claims the Angel Gabriel revealed the Quran to Muhammad. Muhammad is Islam’s prophet and messenger.   

Raamses The treasure city built for Pharaoh. 

Rachel The mother of Joseph and Benjamin, and the favorite wife of Jacob. A Matriarch of the Hebrews.

Rameses Place where the 430-year Exodus left to go to Succoth. Some scholars use this spelling for the person, “Ramses”.

Ramose The late 18th Dynasty vizier for Amenhotep III and mayor of Thebes (Egypt’s capital).  With Akhenaten/Pharaoh, he was again the vizier. He typically supported Amenhotep the son of Hapu, Sitamun, Anen, Horemheb, and Ay.

Ramses The family of the famous Ramses throne. The first was General Ramses, who became Ramses the first. Next was his son Seti, and following him was Ramses the Great or Ramses II.

Rebekah Her father was Bethuel, the son of Abraham’s brother, Nahor. Her mother was Milcah, daughter of Haran. She married Isaac, the only son of Abraham and Sarah, and they had twins, Esau and Jacob.  

Reuben The first and eldest son of Jacob and Leah. Founder of the tribe of Reuben.

Samaritan The Samaritans insist they are descendants from the northern tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, and they survived the Assyrian destruction. The famous story about the Good Samaritan does tend to support that they were the descendants of Joseph, for the story’s themes are forgiveness and compassion, the basis of Joseph and Aseneth’s religion.

Santorini (Thera) Volcanic island in the Aegean Sea, 210 miles southeast of the Greek mainland. The Minoan or the eruption of Thera was so massive that giant rocks from Thera were discovered in the Black Sea, and it generated a massive and destructive tsunami. It was one of the largest eruptions in the last 10,000 years.

Sarah (Sara/Sari) Sarah was the wife of Abraham. It was said that she was very beautiful and a prophetess. She was Abraham’s half-sister (Terah’s daughter by another wife). Mother of Isaac and a Matriarch of Israel. 

Sargon of Akkard  (2334 – 2279 b.c.)  Called Sargon the Great, due to his conquest of Sumeria.  His fame was widely known and so was his story as he describes that his high priestess mother set him into a basket of rushes and she sealed the lid. She cast him into the river and Akki took him as his son. This tale was likely copied by Moses with his reed basket myth; this way he became a Levite. 

Sedge The grasslike plant that comes from wet regions, which comes from the family of papyrus. In ancient Egypt, there was a name given to some rulers, “He of the Sedge and Bee”, which signified both Upper and Lower Egypt. One of the earliest and greatest titles was “Bee King”. Osiris, “the Lord of Judgment,” was worshipped in “the Mansion of the Bee.” 

Sekhmet (Selkhmet/Sekmet Hathor) Egyptian cat goddess that is the defender of divine order.  Ra sent Sekhmet to this world to teach humanity a lesson, for humanity had scorned the powerful sun god. She quickly destroyed so many that Ra sent barrels of red-colored beer to her; she thought it was human blood, drank it, and passed out. Sekhmet was also known as a powerful healer.

Senusret The second king of the 12th Dynasty was Senusret I. He was followed by Amenemhat II, who was followed by Senusret II, then Senusret III, followed by Amenemhat III. 

Set (Seth/Setesh) The Egyptian brother of Osiris. With all of the negative connotations placed upon Seth, he was the one to protect the great Sun God Ra from Apophis (Apep). By the time the Hyksos arrived in Egypt, they associated him with the god Baal, and the Greeks related him with Typhon. It is said that no evil can defeat Set, and perhaps this is why Generalissimo Horemheb united Set and Horus. 

Seti In the 19th Dynasty, the Ramses family began it all. First there was Ramses I, but while he was vizier for Horemheb, young Seti quickly took over. Once Horemheb died, his father ruled only for a few years. When Ramses died, Seti became king. His son was Ramses the Great. Seti had it all—strength, brains and a brilliant education from some of the greatest Egyptians ever. Horemheb set him on a path and he was able to do what had to be done, and this set the stage for his son to be called “the Great”.

Shadow In ancient Egypt, the shadow was called the Sheut and it was regarded as the spiritual soul. It was known so well that it was a famous toast, “Here’s to your shadow!” The end of times makes everyone’s shadow especially important, for Judgment is by the shadow, thereby no one knows it has even taken place.

Sherah (Shera) The daughter of Ephraim and chieftainess of building three sacred cities with the God-given name to Aseneth—Refuge. In preparing for the 400th year to arrive, she built Bethhoron the nether (the lower), Bethhoron the upper, and also Uzzensherah (Uzzenshera, “stronghold of Sherah”).

Shiloh A city in the Ephraim hill-country and the early capital of Israel. Shiloh held the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle for 369 years. 

Shiloh Jacob stated “the scepter will not depart from Judah, until Shiloh comes”. Many believe this is the Messiah.

Simeon The second son of Jacob and Leah, and the father of the Israelite tribe, Simeon. 

Sinai The Sinai Peninsula lies with the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Red Sea to the south, and it is flanked by the Gulf of Suez to the west and the Gulf of Aqaba to the east. This is where so much happened. This is where Hagar was sent into the wilderness to die and she was saved by God and lived to generate myths; the myths became the foundation for early Islam, and this is where Mecca is now located. This is also where Thutmosis/Moses met his second wife, Zipporah. This is where Thutmosis/Moses did his Exodus and wandered for 40 years, and this is where Mt. Sinai stands.

Sitamun (Sitamon) The first known wife of Moses/Thutmosis with the blood of Ahmose-Nefertari. Possibly the daughter of Tuya and Yuya, who carried the bloodline of Ahmose-Nefertari. Sitamun was regarded as one of the royal few to hold the bloodline that made her like a queen bee. Perhaps this is why Amenhotep the Son of Hapu was the steward of her estate, for he was similar to Leonardo da Vinci with the additions of a healer and sage. Sitamun was likely young when she was the co-regent queen with Mutemwiya. Before Horemheb became king, Sitamun smartly remained reclusive. She later possibly became the queen with Ramses I, known as Sitre.

Sitre Ramses I queen. See . . . Sitamun

Solomon The son of David and builder of the first temple in Jerusalem. Solomon was wealthy, wise and king of Israel. 

Tell-el Daba (Tell el-Daba/Tell el Daba) This was a capital city for the Hyksos. Tell-el Daba is in the Nile Delta region, which was named Avaris. In the 12th Dynasty, royalty granted free access to this town, and this was like opening the doors for the descendant tribes of Hagar, other tribes of Abraham, and some from Syria and Palestine. Today, scholars know the Minoans were present, for Minoan frescoes (floors or walls) exist, proving that in the time of Joseph, the Minoans were living there or extensively trading in that area. Oddly, when Mt. Thera erupted at the time of the 430-year Exodus, the Minoans were on their own exodus due to their homeland being destroyed by the eruption of Thera. Many went to Tell-el Daba, and some to Amarna, where the city was nearly empty. Tell-el Daba also had a large temple built to Set in the time of Horemheb, and the Ramses family was ruling in this area. In May 2009, the discovery of a palace in Tell-el Daba occurred. The king’s name associated with this palace was Khayan (Khyan/Khian). Khayan, called Iannas by Manetho or Seuserenre by scholars, was a 15th Dynasty Hyksos king in 1615–1575 b.c., so he ruled for approximately 40 years. The palace was a northern Syrian type and larger than any in Syria. With a “Syrian” king ruling half of Egypt, this is factual evidence that after Joseph, Egyptian soil likely went from the Nile to the Euphrates River.   

Temple of Luxor The Temple of Luxor was called Ipet resyt, which means the “southern palace of the God”. This large Ancient Egyptian temple complex was located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was dedicated to the Theban Triad of Mut, Amon (Amun/Amen), and Khonsu. Vital for the Opet festival, the Temple was akin to being the part-time home for the three gods, as the statues within the holy chamber may or may not hold the divine God. See also . . . Opet and Khonsu

Temple of Karnak This temple was called the “Great Temple of Amen”. Within were other temples as for the gods Amun-Ra, Montu, and Mut, and even the temple of Amenhotep IV or Akhenaten. Building Karnak involved approximately thirty kings. It is one of the world’s largest temples.

Temple of Mut The primary Temple of Mut is within the Temple of Karnak, which is in northern Thebes. The main theme of the Karnak and Luxor Temples is the triad of Amen (Amen), Mut, and Khonsu. This is cosmic. Mut, the mother from which the cosmos was formed, was self-created. She was a woman depicted with the wings of a white vulture. Her gown was red or blue (feminine and masculine), with a feather of Maat. In essence, Mut was the Great Divine Mother that followed only truth, and she ate the spiritually corrupt ones. Her beloved mate was Amen, and their son was Khonsu.   

Terah The Torah says that Terah had three sons: Abraham (Abram), Haran, and Nahor. Terah, according to the Midrash [Numbers Rabbah 19:1; 19:33], was wicked because he manufactured idols. In Islam, Terah was called Azar

The Way This is the path of life that was intended for all living things, and humanity would be served by life. Initially, it often incorporates synchronicity, and this is the signpost to follow. The animal kingdom and all living things typically follow the way, just as the flower knows to turn toward the sun, for this is consciousness. Following the way requires little or no thought processes, and this opens the mind to function with consciousness and not the program of control. In essence, the more you think, the more you block your heart, and the heart is a link to the soul, and the mind is the link to the divine, which is stillness, peace and love. Following the way is not perfection in this world, for there is so much imperfection that the way is often attacked with advertising and corrupt thoughts from thinkers with pride, greed, selfishness, and accepted false beliefs. Humanity has yet to follow the path of the way, for it selected a system of material gain; instead of giving life, it often gives death. Humanity’s truthful Messiah is not a supernatural man or woman . . . it is the way

Thebes Today the city is called Luxor, but in ancient times it was called “the City of Amun”. It is located 450 miles south of present-day Cairo, on the eastern bank of the Nile River. The Greeks called it “Diospolis” (Heavens city), while later in the Bible it was called, “No”. The city was the capital of “Waset”, the fourth Upper Egyptian Nome; it was also the capital of Egypt during the 11th and 18th Dynasties. Thebes is considered as being on the east and west banks of the Nile, as on the west bank the famous “Valley of Kings, Nobles, and Queens” resides. The Greek poet Homer said Thebes was a great city of 100 gates. At Thebes, there are two major Temples: Karnak, the world’s largest temple, and Luxor Temple, dedicated to the trinity of Amen, Mut, and Khonsu, their son. In actuality, both temples are connected by rows of sphinxes and therefore are one temple.

Thera The Minoan island of Thera (or Santorini) had one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth, about 1350 b.c. When the city of Akrotiri on Santorini was discovered, it was covered in pumice. Archaeological evidence shows the civilization lived well. See . . . Santorini

Three Tribes The three tribes were formed when the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin prepared for the Promised Land as God promised Abraham. Once the 400th year arrived, it was highly likely that they had a powerful celebration, for the evidence states they were living in the Promised Land, thus fulfilling God’s prophecy. These three tribes are considered to be the “Hebrews” and are in no way spiritually connected to the other nine tribes that descended from Abraham and Sarah. See also . . . Hebrews, Nine Tribes, and Jewish

Thutmose I Succeeded Amenhotep I and ruled for a short time of about six years. In general terms, he was a generalissimo king who was remarkable in his military exploits. In essence, he set new boundaries for Egypt and instituted the golden age for the 18th Dynasty.

Thutmose II Thutmose II ruled, and late in his reign, his half-sister Hatshepsut took the throne. She prospered and ruled well with a firm hand, but eventually the mystery evolved, for suddenly Hatshepsut disappeared from the records and Thutmose III ascended to the throne.

Thutmose III Hatshepsut was ruling Egypt and suddenly Thutmose III took the throne and Hatshepsut disappeared. No matter how one looks at it, Hatshepsut was likely murdered. With that said, today Thutmose III is commonly called the “Napoleon of Egypt”, for he was successful when it came to military exploits.

Thutmose IV Besides Tutankhamen and Ramses the Great, this king is perhaps the best known today because of the myth detailed on the Dream Stela that says that he fell asleep leaning against the Sphinx and the Sphinx told him to clear away the sand and he will be made the king. Most Egyptologists today agree that he murdered for the throne. Thutmose IV had a minor wife, Mutemwiya, and together they had a son Amenhotep III. As Amenhotep III was too young to rule, his mother took over, much as Hatshepsut had done earlier.

Thutmosis V Some scholars may deny the fact that Thutmosis, the elder son of Amenhotep III, should be called Thutmose the fifth, for that states he was a king. Yet, even though there is undeniable evidence that he was co-regent with his father, simply by the Apis Bull ceremony, some insist that he was not a king. It is accepted to call Tutankhamen a king, when he was co-regent, therefore Thutmosis was a king.

Tiy (Ti/Tiye) Tiye was the queen with Amenhotep III, after his mother had served as the queen. Queen Tiye undeniably ruled Amarna with her son Akhenaten, thus pushing Nefertiti finally out and installing Kiya. There is the possibility that Kiya was Mutnodjemet; she was put into this position due to Tiye making a deal with the priesthood, thus making the throne of royal Ahmose-Nefertari blood. 

Tomb of Horemheb There are two known tombs pertaining to Horemheb: one in Sakara, and the other in the Valley of Kings in Luxor, designated as KV 57. This tomb is a must-see when in the Valley, for it is beautiful with rich colors and detail that makes one wonder how all of this was done by oil lamps, or mirrors and the sunlight. From the skilled plastering to the carving, sketching, and hand-painting, any artist would understand its greatness. Although Horemheb ruled for about thirty years, it is partly unfinished. The tomb reveals the methods applied in tomb making, which places this tomb as a guide for the future. There is likely a third tomb that has yet to be discovered.

Tomb of Tutankhamen When King Tutankhamen died, it was a shock to everyone, for he was so young and had so much to do. The tomb where his body was laid to rest (KV 62), next to the tomb of Horemheb, was perhaps built for Ay. From its size, anyone can see it was completed in a hurry. Still, with seventy days to prepare the body and bury the king and all the artifacts, which were many, it was a remarkable tomb. 

Tomb of Noble Tuya and Yuya This tomb (KV 46) has some of the finest artifacts ever to be found. Although their tomb was in the Valley of Kings, they were said to be nobles. Yet, the evidence suggests that Thuya (the female) was of Ahmose-Nefertari blood, which was half-Hebrew.Nowhere in Egyptian history is there a family that held such powerful positions, and this family lived during the 400-year Exodus. 

Torah This is the holy book of the nine tribes of Israel. To the nine tribes, there is actually no “Old Testament”. They refer to the first five books of Moses as the Torah (Tanakh).

Tuya (Thuya/Touya) She was the “Superintendent of the Harems of Amun (in Thebes) and of Min at Akhim, Singer of Hathor, Chief of the Entertainers of Amun and Min”. Wife of Yuya and mother of Queen Tiye, Ay, Anen, and likely, Queen Sitamun. Tuya and Yuya’s tomb (KV 46), which had countless beautiful artifacts, was discovered in the Valley of Kings in 1905. One immediately wonders as to why a noble couple was buried in the Valley of Kings, but she was a descendant of Ahmose-Nefertari, which makes her akin to a queen bee.

Twelve Tribes In the Bible, the ancient Israelites are sometimes referred to as the “Twelve Tribes”. They were the descendants of the biblical patriarch, Jacob.

Ugarit (port) Ugarit was a powerful seaport Egyptian city in the time of Amenhotep III.But, when Thera had its final eruption, the same time Thutmosis/Moses was leaving Succoth, massive earthquakes and a tsunami devastated Ugarit. With the loss of Ugarit and other seaports, the entire region tried to adjust, for basic needs obtained through trade were suddenly stopped. Ugarit quickly rebuilt, but this time with a giant sea wall.

Yuya (Youya) He was the husband of Tuya. He was “King’s Lieutenant, Commander of the King’s Horse and Father of the God and Superintendent of the Cattle” under Thutmose IV. He was the father of Queen Tiye, Anen, Ay, and likely, Queen Sitamun.


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NOTE: In this Glossary, any words in brackets are additional information that goes beyond a basic statement of the meaning of a word and are included to further detail the perspective advanced in this book or cite a source. For example:  [Numbers Rabbah 19:1]



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The Discovery of Abraham, Joseph and MosesAncient Voices

Ancient Voices is comprehensively researched. Using artifacts,historical records,etymology clues,geographic evidence,and religious texts,Zed traces the historical truth. He challenges traditional views of the apocalypse and reveals long-hidden facts regarding history’s most sought-after secrets and the ancient world’s effect on today’s culture. Learn about discoveries and deceptions,some perpetuated for centuries. This thought-provoking book will change how you view religion, faith, & the future.


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